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Leaders, did you ever hear certainly one of your Soldiers say, “The last bullet is for … me?” Maybe they have a grenade saved they”won’t be captured alive. for themselves so” Such predetermined behavior is self-defeating and simply leaves your Soldiers unprepared for the difficulties they’ll encounter should they become personnel that are isolatedIP) who are “separated from their unit, as an individual or a group” and they “must survive, evade, resist, or escape.” (1) This mindset results from a lack of understanding of personnel recovery (PR) throughout much of the Army, outside of Special Operations or Aviation. While current joint PR training programs have roots floating around Force, operations post-9/11 have actually demonstrated the necessity for and development of similar programs into the Army. Regrettably, in many devices PR includes checking the box on Survival, Evasion, opposition, and Escape (SERE) training online and completing isolated personnel reports (ISOPREPs) prior to deployment. At the combat that is brigade (BCT) level and below, PR is often relegated to the world of the brigade aviation element, with little awareness among most leaders associated with the essential capabilities obtainable in the Army’s PR program.
What exactly is Personnel Healing?
Army PR is “the sum of the army, diplomatic, and civil efforts to influence the data recovery and reunite of U.S. army, (Department of Defense) DOD civilians and DOD contractor workers … who’re separated personnel in an environment that is operational” according to Army Regulation (AR) 350-1, Army Training and Leader Development. Military efforts begin with education and training such as SERE Level C training, the use of isolated guidance that is soldierISG) and an evasion plan of action (EPA), as well as the fielding of PR equipment such as the fight Survivor Evader Locator (CSEL) radio and evasion maps (EVCs). When separated, Soldiers return to control that is friendly the execution for the five PR tasks–report, find, support, recuperate, and reintegrate–which are conducted by internet protocol address, units, and workers recovery coordination cells (PRCC) in accordance with the detailed PR plan within Appendix 2 (Personnel healing) to Annex E (Protection).

While you may have never heard of the five PR tasks, developed an EPA, or even seen an EVC, small units in the Army do PR far better than it initially appears. For example, look at your land navigation course that is last training. Keep in mind the briefing before you start the program where the trainer gave you a panic azimuth and instructions for what to do if you were lost, injured, or ran out of time? That short brief is the application of PR principles. That trainer just granted ISG! When was the last time you provided a five-point contingency plan? That’s right, isolated Soldier guidance once once more! ISG provides Soldiers awareness, accountability, rapid reporting, and actions to simply take whenever isolated. Consider some basics of patrolling: headcounts, rally points, route planning and checkpoints, battle tracking in the tactical operations center (TOC), and usage of tactical standard operating procedures (TACSOPs). All those things help plan and prepare for isolation and data recovery, thus fulfilling the meaning of personnel data recovery. The issue is these unit that is small, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) are often not tied into the larger PR structure. Simply put, there is no linkage between the five-point contingency plan while the five PR tasks. While tiny device actions and TTPs resolve many PR occasions so quickly that no one ever realizes they existed or recognizes them as PR activities, there may be a gap that is tremendous those small unit TTPs and the dedicated PR structure. That gap endangers Infantrymen working in small units in austere conditions such as snipers, advisors participating in security force assistance missions, or any unit that could have a break in contact during a patrol. Units can close that gap through the tactical application of PR.
The PR Process
Personnel recovery is dependant on the achievement of this five PR tasks: report, locate, support, recuperate, and reintegrate. Central to PR is accountability of all DOD workers to add personnel that are military government civilians, and contractors. Upon realizing that any personnel may be isolated, the task that is first to report through normal functional demand stations from the battalion TOC to the brigade personnel recovery officer (PRO) to unit and corps PRCCs. Anyone who understands of or suspects a person has become separated should immediately report the incident. Reports do not have to result from the isolated person’s own unit. Knowledge of the isolating event may come from having witnessed the big event, be circumstantial such as no communication with a patrol that missed the anticipated return time, or from cleverness sources. As soon as reported, the Army, acting while the land component, will use a variety of assets to validate the isolating event and accumulate information.

The first effort is to locate, confirm the identity of, and continue to track the whereabouts of the IP through recovery after the report of an isolating event. Information can come from the IP, observers to the event that is isolating and all sources of intelligence. When activated, the PR framework has tremendous capabilities and assets to locate and then offer the personnel that are isolated. Once located, both the IP, and his next of kin require support to increase the possibility of a recovery that is successful. The IP might be supported through efforts to deliver needed equipment, establish communications, provide intelligence, or increase morale. Help towards the next of kin goes beyond normal casualty support and includes, for example, general public affairs support to lessen the chance that feedback or information produced by the following of kin could be utilized to harm or even to exploit the internet protocol address.
The U.S federal government makes use of army, diplomatic, and options that are civil recover isolated personnel. Army doctrine identifies four military methods to perform the recovery task: instant, deliberate, externally supported., and unassisted. Considering that the IP’s unit usually has the best situational awareness, that unit may conduct an immediate recovery before the enemy understands the situation. An immediate recovery requires very small, if any, preparation and it is the preferred approach to data recovery. When an immediate data recovery fails or is extremely hard, commanders can plan a deliberate data recovery utilizing an established operations planning process. As the land component, the Army is required to conduct its own recovery operations and does so 95 percent of the time; however, if required due to lack of capabilities, there is the option of an externally supported recovery, which utilizes joint, coalition, or host nation assets. Finally, there clearly was recovery that is unassisted where in actuality the IP returns to friendly control without a formal recovery operation by performing a fruitful evasion, which “is normally a contingency used if data recovery forces cannot (min usage of the isolated individual.” (2)
The PR process continues after recovery with the post-isolation reintegration process, which occurs in three stages. The purpose of this procedure is always to reunite isolated workers to duty with physical and fitness that is emotional conducting intelligence and SERE debriefs. These debriefs can provide a tremendous amount of tactical cleverness as well as identify changes which may be needed in functional procedures and training programs. The reintegration process is important to the well-being that is long-term of returnee. The process that is overall tailored to the experience and condition associated with the returnee so a quick extent isolating occasion may only require a debriefing during the phase one facility, which will be forward located within the theater of operations. On the other hand, an individual who encountered a period of captivity or serious injury would need a lengthier reintegration and proceed through a phase two facility, such as for example Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Germany, before finishing the procedure during the Army’s phase three center positioned at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.
Connecting Device TTPs to Five PR Tasks
The Army Personnel Recovery Program, established in AR 52528, is “designed to prevent or reduce any advantage that is strategic enemies may gain due to a tactical event involving the isolation of Army personnel” through the “seamless integration of PR policies and doctrine” into Army operations. While PR is a very heading that is broad product commanders can straight connect their unit TTPs to the accomplishment of this five PR tasks through the addition of ISG and EPA into mission planning. ISG and EPAs synchronize actions between commanders, recovery forces, and internet protocol address; this facilitates recovery by giving them expectations associated with the other’s actions.
ISG is the endstate of top-down PR guidance and gives Soldiers the data required to provide understanding, accountability, quick reporting, and guidance for actions after an isolating event.
At the ongoing company and platoon levels, leaders develop ISG based upon PR guidance from higher headquarters and tailor it to the unit’s operational environment. While there is not a set format, ISG must provide an easy-to-understand plan of what to do once separated that is known by all users of a unit. Though lacking the details of a complete ISG, the five-point contingency plan is a simple application of the principles of ISG already in common use at the small unit level:
Where in actuality the frontrunner is Going
The others he could be taking with him
Time he plans become gone
How to handle it if the leader will not reunite in time
Actions by the unit in case contact is manufactured as the leader is fully gone. (3)
ISG produces awareness by developing isolation criteria that address the conditions by which Soldiers should consider themselves separated. These conditions are more straightforward to determine for some types of devices than the others. Including, once the helicopter is on a lawn and will not fly, then a pilot is probably smart to consider himself isolated. But also for an Infantry unit whose mission is always to close with and destroy the enemy, the line between poor tactical situation and isolating event remains murky. Isolation criteria provide clarity to those situations and aid a Soldier in determining when to take action. In general, when a Soldier or group of Soldiers can no longer complete their intended mission and must rather turn their give attention to survival or evading capture, chances are they should give consideration to themselves separated.
ISG stresses accountability by obviously outlining the processes and procedures for leaders to take into account and monitor the whereabouts of most Soldiers. ISG should not burden units with extra needs but instead is most effective whenever using TTPs routinely used by the unit such as headcounts prior to movements and daily personnel status reports. Soldiers achieve rapid reporting by having an understanding of what an isolating event is and exactly how it ought to be reported. An soldier that is isolated take action to effect his own recovery by attempting to contact the unit. Soldiers may use a variety of communication or methods that are signaling such as those already included as part of the primary, alternative, contingency, and emergency (PACE) plans in the device’s SOP. Commonly available practices include VHF/UHF/HF/satellite tactical radios, Blue Force Tracker, VS-17 panels, smoke grenades, star groups, and lights that are strobe. While somewhat unknown outside the field of PR, units can get training on the use of personal locator beacons (PLBs) and employment of visual methods that are signaling create a ground-to-air sign (GTAS). Regardless of method, ISG must mirror a knowledge of abilities and increase awareness of all assets available, such as for example the “sheriff’s internet,” the guard regularity and typical traffic advisory regularity (CTAF) monitored by all aircraft, or the emergency beacon in the multiband inter/intra team radio (MBITR), to speed up the report and locate tasks.
ISG must provide easy, easy-to-remember instructions that will help “Soldiers feel well informed in hard circumstances since they already have an agenda” of actions to simply take. (4) again, current TTPs and SOPs are the best techniques to use as ISG since Soldiers are familiar with those techniques. The utilization of rally points, defined in the Ranger Handbook as “a spot designated by the first choice in which the device moves to reassemble and reorganize if it becomes dispersed,” is a simple way of providing an agenda for actions isolation that is following. In order to properly use rally points, the handbook states that Soldiers “must know which rally point to move to at each phase … [and] … what actions are required there.”
Finally, an isolated Soldier must conduct link-up with friendly forces. The link-up is difficult and dangerous, especially when the recovery element is from a unit that is different service, or country. ISG decreases the risk by developing protocols such as for example designated near/tsar recognition signals proven to both the isolated Soldier together with data recovery element.
During missions with a larger threat of isolation, Soldiers or units exceed ISG to build up an EPA. This improves their likelihood of successful data recovery by giving information regarding their mission and meant actions following an isolating event. Unlike ISG, an EPA is a bottom-up document that is served by the Soldier or little product, then sent up the chain of demand to determine the supportability for the plan and for safe-keeping. EPAs are typically used by aviators or Special Operations Forces (SOF), but the majority of common Infantry operations have sufficient risk to justify the effort to develop an EPA. Unit size has an inverse relationship to risk of isolation so elements working in a team that is small as scouts, snipers, consultant groups, or other fire team to squad-sized missions is very carefully reviewed for threat of isolation. Even larger elements positioned in a patrol that is remote, combat outpost, or joint protection place may need to develop an EPA because of their distance from supporting elements.
EPAs must be tailored every single mission and updated when conditions modification. The more accurate an EPA is, the better the possibility of a recovery. The EPA structure will change in relation to guidance from unit and theater PR SOPs, operation orders (OPORDs), and commander’s guidance. An example EPA format from Appendix B, FM 3-50.1, Army Personnel Recovery, provides a baseline of information contained in an EPA. Much of the information is already available in principles of operations (CONOPs)/OPORDs, trip seats manifests, and device SOPs (e.g. signaling). An EPA consolidates that information, along with incorporated specific PR actions, into one document to accelerate information movement to a recovery force during the accomplishment of the choose, support, and data recovery tasks.
PR Training
As an element of preparation to be able to effectively use ISG and EPAs, Soldiers and leaders should have the appropriate level of training. The baseline for PR training is Army PR (ARPR) 101: Intro to Personnel Recovery Concepts, which is an AR 350-1 training requirement that is annual. Those principles are further explained in ARPR 202: Commanders and Staff obligations and in SERE training. The basis for several SERE training is the Code of Conduct. Established in 1955 by Executive Order 10631 as a reply towards the conditions experienced by prisoners of war (POW) in Korea, the Code of Conduct provides the framework to guide the actions of most service, members who find themselves isolated. The Code of Conduct provides basic information and guidance for situations that all Soldiers could encounter in six articles. A Soldier’s degree of training will vary and it is commensurate with the risk of isolation, capture, or exploitation, that will be spelled down in DOD Instruction (DODI) 1300.21.
SERE Level A (SERE-A) is the “minimum degree of understanding for all people associated with military,” (5) and it is often a command that is combatantCOCOM) theater entry requirement. The Army’s SERE-A program consists of two interactive media instruction (IMI) courses: Army SERE 102: Survival & Evasion basics Course and Army SERE 103: Resistance & Escape Fundamentals Course. Within the short term, Soldiers should complete ARPR 101C in lieu of SERE 103 until the new version of SERE 103 is released. These courses, along with ARPR 10.1 and ARPR 202, are available on the Army Learning Management System (ALMS), the. Army Training Network (ATN), or DVD format from Defense Imagery. Also, the Army Personnel Recovery Proponent Office (PRPO) at the Combined Arms Center offers training support packages (TSP) with PowerPoint slides for unit-level trained in host to the ARPR 101, ARPR 202, SERE 102, and SERE 103 IMI courses. In order to conduct SERE-A training, trainers should have completed SERE 102/103 IMI within the year that is past finished an Army SERE-C program, and completed either ARPR 202 or the Aviation Mission Survivability Officer (TACOPS) PR program. Contact the PRPO for more information in the TSPs: https://combinedarmscenter.anny.mil/mccoe/CDID/PRPO/Pages/default.aspx.
Deploying devices usually encounter confusion involving the Army’s SERE-A system, the SERE 100.1 computer-based training (CBT) on Joint Knowledge Online (JKO), and COCOM-specific programs such as the Central Command (CENTCOM) High. Risk of Isolation (HRI) Briefing. Prior to a deployment, units should review AR 350-1 and COCOM requirements in order to utilize the training course that is appropriate.
SERE degree B is for Soldiers with a “moderate risk of capture and exploitation” and expands upon amount an exercise. (6) The Army has not had a SERE-B ability considering that the U.S. Army SERE School at Fort Rucker, Ala., became a SERE Level C program in 2007.
Soldiers “whose military jobs, specialties, or assignments entail a significant or high-risk of capture and exploitation” need SERE Level C training “at least when inside their jobs … just as they assume duties or responsibilities that make them eligible.” (7) AR 350-1 states training that is SERE-Cshould be made available to those people whoever deployment duties will likely require them to work outside of secure operating bases with restricted safety.” It further identifies particular Soldiers, as a minimum, who will receive training that is SERE-C either the U.S. Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School at Fort Bragg, N.C., or at the U.S. Army Aviation Center of Excellence at Fort Rucker. Army SOF will generally attend at Fort Bragg. Personnel eligible to attend at Fort Rucker include snipers, pathfinders, anybody assigned to a reconnaissance squadron, and anybody assigned to a long-range reconnaissance and surveillance unit. Non-Infantry personnel eligible for SERE-C include aviators and aircrew that is enlisted, counterintelligence or individual intelligence workers participating in collection outside protected bases, and Criminal Investigation Division (CID) agents or Military Police Soldiers conducting investigations outside secure bases. Also, AR 350-1 states that any Soldier based on “assignment, painful and sensitive knowledge, and/or threat of isolation, capture, or exploitation” determined by a brigade commander or more is eligible to attend SERE-C. For deploying units, combatant command PR guidance will even designate high-risk workers that has to go to SERE-C as a theater-entry requirement. The SERE school at Fort Rucker offers training that is SERE-C 2,000 students per year. Informative data on going to SERE-C will come in AR 350-1, Army Training Requirements and Resource System (ATRRS) course 2C-F107/600-F17(CT), or the U.S. Army SERE class AKO page.
When planning that is conducting PR operations (including ISG and EPA development), a key resource is the PRO, who is typically located within the brigade aviation element and, at division and higher headquarters, in the PRCC. Army publications include AR 525-28; FM 3.50-1; FM 3-05.7, Survival; and GTA 80-01003, Survival, Evasion, and Recovery. For Forces Command (FORSCOM) units, the FORSCOM PR office is an important resource: https://www.us.army.mil/suite/page/650428. The Joint Personnel Recovery Agency offers IPG that is country-specific well as information about PR tools such as blood chits, EVCs, and PLBs on its non-classified and secure websites. While deployed, the PR Special Instructions (SPINS) located in the fresh air tasking order (ATO) provide theater guidance on PR assets, communications, and verification information. The PR SPINS are available on the interne that is secure best long range router (SIPR) into the ATO, nonetheless it may be more straightforward to get a duplicate from an Army Aviation device or your assigned, joint terminal attack controller (JTAC).
What we as Infantrymen do as a matter of SOP within our organizations works for our devices. However the incompatibility of unit TTPs with the required inputs to the PR system can hinder the activation and utilization of national capabilities in the event one of our Soldiers becomes isolated. By utilizing ISG and EPAs that are developing we can connect into PR assets and help with the accomplishment associated with the five PR tasks. The usage of ISG or EPA does not absolve commanders through the duty to anticipate to conduct an immediate recovery, that will be probably be the method that is quickest to return isolated Soldiers to friendly forces. Rather, their usage opens the door to the existing PR architecture, which increases the chances of a successful recovery.
RELATED ARTICLE: Example Evasion Plan of Action
1. Identification information includes:
a. title, rank, social safety number or service number, and responsibility place of unit members.
b. Mission number, unit, date, and aircraft, vehicle, or convoy call sign or identifier.
2. Planned path of travel and waypoints information includes:
a. Direction of travel, path points, distance, and heading.
b. Evasion plans for each area of the journey or activity.
3. Immediate evasion actions to be taken for initial 48 hours if uninjured include:
a. Actions for hiding near the aircraft or vehicle.
b. Rally points.
c. Travel plans including distance, speed, and time.
d. meant actions and length of stay at initial hiding location.
4. Immediate evasion actions you need to take if injured include:
a. Hiding intentions.
b. Evasion intentions.
c. Travel intentions.
d. Intended actions at hiding locations.
5. Extended evasion actions you need to take after 48 hours include:
a. Destination (such as for example data recovery area, mountain range, coast, border, or friendly forces location).
b. Travel routes, plans, and techniques (either written or drawn).
C. Actions and intentions at potential recovery or contact locations.
d. Recovery contact point signals, signs, and procedures (written or drawn).
age. Back-up plans, if any, for the above mentioned.
6. Communications and verification information includes:
a. Duress word, quantity, color, or letter associated with the time, thirty days, or quarter, or other authentication that is current.
b. Available communications and signaling devices: type and number of radios, programmed frequencies, encryption rule, volume of batteries, type and quantity of flares, beacons, mirrors, strobe lights, other.
c. Main communication routine, procedures, and frequencies (initial and contact that is extended).
d. Backup communication schedule. procedures, and frequencies.
7. other information that is useful:
a. Survival, evasion, opposition, and previously escape training completed.
b. Weapons and ammo.
c. Personal evasion kit things.
d. Listing of issued signaling, survival, and evasion kit items.
age. Mission evasion preparation list.
f. Clothing, footwear size, and resupply items.
g. Signature of reviewing official.
8. Supplementary information includes anything adding to the recovery and location of remote persons.
Notes
(1.) Joint Publication 3-50, Personnel Healing, 2007, 274 january.
(2 FM that is.) 3-05.231 Special Forces Personnel Recovery, 2001, 1-1 june.
(3.) Student Handbook 21-76, Ranger Handbook, 2011, 7-4 february.
(4.) FM. 3-50.1, Army Personnel Recovery, 2011, 1-11 november.
(5.) DODI 1300.21, 2001 january
(6.) Ibid.
(7.) Ibid.
MAJ NICHOLAS FALCETTO
MAJ Nicholas Falcetto is serving at the Personnel healing Proponent Office at Fort Leavenworth, Kan. He previously served due to the fact officer that is executive of U.S. Army SERE School at Fort Rucker, Ala. Other previous assignments including serving with units in the 82nd Airborne Division and Cavalry that is 1st Division. He is a 2003 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West aim, N.Y., and received a bachelor’s level in mechanical engineering.